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Human Trafficking - Manual For Journalists

This Manual has been prepared with the intention of providing basic information about the issue of human trafficking, particularly trafficking in women, to all those who write or wish to write about this problem. The aim is to offer essential information about the problem itself, along with recommendations for writing, all to present the issue as accurately as possible and inform the public in the interest of the victims of human trafficking and all those who work with them.

The Manual is based on over two decades of experience of the non-governmental organization ASTRA in addressing the issue of human trafficking. This experience primarily involves providing support to over 600 victims of human trafficking, as well as engaging in preventive and educational work with at-risk groups and professionals in institutions. Additionally, it includes efforts to influence the shaping of legislative frameworks and policies aimed at combating human trafficking.

Furthermore, in addition to providing definitions and historical context, the third expanded and updated edition of the Manual for Journalists offers a general overview of the situation and new trends related to human trafficking both domestically and globally. Professionals who have been engaged in investigative journalism in the field of human trafficking or who contribute in other ways to the prevention and suppression of this problem have been involved in writing this edition. The publication is enriched with authorial texts related to investigative work on some of the huge cases of human trafficking for labor exploitation that have occurred in contemporary Europe. Additionally, it delves into a more detailed examination of risk factors such as war and economic migrations.

Adequate media reporting on this issue is highly significant for dispelling prejudices, raising public awareness, preventing future recruitment, and improving the quality of assistance and the reintegration process for individuals who have managed to escape from the human trafficking chain. We believe that this is in our common interest.

In the electronic version in front of you, three chapters of the handbook have been singled out, as they are assessed to be the most useful for novice journalists who are just beginning to address this topic.

A word from the therapist

The conflict between the will to deny horrible events and the will to proclaim them aloud

Think of a situation when you experienced an abuse, threat, violence… When you felt intense fear for yourself and your loved ones and loss of control in important areas of life. This situation may have been an isolation, lack of support and helplessness. You felt so ashamed that you wished to disappear, and the guilt that “it” was happening to you was overwhelming, even though you clearly knew that you had nothing to do with the harm that was inflicted on you. We are talking about an experience when your feelings, intimacy, safety, integrity, dignity, honour or body experienced some kind of threat. It was difficult for you to confide to another person about the experience, you were afraid that they would not believe you… Unfortunately, your apprehension was justified: many shook their heads sceptically, assured you that it “wasn’t really like that” and that it “wasn’t that important”, or made unsavoury jokes…

I invite all readers of this Manual to picture a hypothetical situation, in which your painful recollected experience is made public in print, visual, and digital media – with your full name or initials. Truly, semi-falsely, or falsely described, but everyone may feel invited to further hurt, insult, or intimidate you in the comments. In addition, I ask you to imagine that it would forever remain in the sphere of virtual reality, the Internet, and the cloud. One click would always be enough for your trauma to be exploited again, for different and often disgraceful reasons.

The consequences of unprofessional reporting represent a new form of violence against the victims, especially when we talk about survivors of the trauma of human trafficking, a complex trauma that is classified as torture (the most serious attack on human life). Also, every time they see themselves, their name, or initials, or when the abusers (traffickers, their helpers, sympathetic representatives of the media, institutions, and the community in which they live) deny the crime or praise their deeds, the survivors become victims again, reliving the trauma they have already experienced. And not only that – through the unethical actions described, they experience another form of violence. The spiral of violence does not stop.

Regardless of individual differences, all survivors’ needs can be summed up in the “5P formula “: support, trust, connection, help, and friendship. They need to feel safe first, so that the wounds heal at least to some extent, and then justice should be served. The continuation of life, with the feeling that the future is certain, is inseparable from restoring faith in one’s own values and in the people around them. It is essential that the survivors feel a genuine connection with others again. Only then can we use the term – integration.

“The conflict between the will to deny horrible events and the will to proclaim them aloud is the central dialectic of psychological trauma,” said author J.L. Herman in “Trauma and Recovery”.

The above quote indicates how delicate the condition of the survivors is, and therefore the complexity of reporting on the events and painful experiences of these people, their loved ones, and affected communities. In order not to become symbolic accomplices of violence while reporting on the trauma of human trafficking, I invite you to protect the confidentiality of personal data, victims’ testimonies, their honour and dignity, human and civil rights, and especially the rights of child victims.

Through psychotherapy with survivors of the human trafficking trauma, I have learned that most of them want the public and the media to talk and write about human trafficking as a brutal, organized crime. It is especially important to survivors to prevent some other children, girls, women, and men have the same experience. Eventually, when the survivors feel a strong need to tell everything – to the camera or the recorder, you should remember that you are certainly more powerful than them, and therefore you should protect them from excessive exposure and potential retaliation. Reporting on dangers to children and people, risks, self-protection, institutions, and organizations whose competence is the prevention and protection of victims, is the best way of socially responsible reporting on human trafficking. At the same time, it is an immeasurable support to the survivors.

However, even when it is over, the wounds still remain with the survivors. The professional ethics of journalists, editors, photographers, honesty, respect, and empathy are important links in the recovery of persons who have survived the trauma of human trafficking.

I invite you to remember the mental exercise from the beginning of this text whenever you report on human trafficking, gender-based violence, violence against children and other forms of violence when people and their loved ones suffered injuries or, unfortunately, lost their lives.

Kind regards,
Biljana Slavković
Psychotherapist, Institute for Psychodrama

Recommendations for reporting on cases of trafficking in human beings

This chapter is envisaged as a summary of key information on human trafficking and guidelines for ethical reporting on the subject.

What is trafficking in human beings?

  • Human trafficking is one of the most lucrative criminal activities

  • Anyone can become a victim of human trafficking, regardless of gender, age, nationality, religious and other beliefs, level of education and place of residence.

  • Not all illegal migrants are victims of human trafficking, but human trafficking and illegal migration are often related processes; either victims of human trafficking are illegally transferred across borders, or illegal migrants fall victim to traffickers due to coercion by organizers of illegal migration.

  • The key element of human trafficking is exploitation.

  • There are two most common types of exploitation of victims of human trafficking: sexual exploitation and labour exploitation, and a combination of these two types of exploitation is not rare either.

  • Traffickers often take the victims to an unfamiliar environment, far from their place of residence, and sometimes to a place where the victims do not speak the language, to control them more easily and to prevent their escape.

  • The most common control mechanisms are confinement/isolation; threat and use of violence/intimidation, including threats against the victim's family; debt slavery - the obligation to repay (often fabricated) debts

  • Victims are sometimes forced to commit criminal acts, then we speak of a form of human trafficking called forced commission of crime

  • In addition to physical exploitation, victims always experience psychological trauma.

  • Human trafficking survivors need long-term professional help in rehabilitation to reintegrate into society. However, in some cases, even when all kinds of help and support are available, it is not possible to eliminate the damage caused by the trauma they experience.

How to report on trafficking in human beings - the most common misconceptions and mistakes, and how to prevent them

1

In addition to international conventions and other acts that directly or indirectly apply (also) to human trafficking, it is important to know how national legislation tackles the issue.

2

Human trafficking can be addressed through several aspects: economic, political, women's rights/human rights, legal, security, organized crime, etc. For your article, choose the aspect that has been written about the least. There is more chance that you will say something new.

3

The readers, and unfortunately sometimes journalists and editors, often do not differentiate between illegal migration, international prostitution, and trafficking in women

4

Trafficking in women is mostly reported on after the public finds out that a victim of trafficking, mostly a woman was forced into prostitution, but usually that does not lead to an extended analytical reporting on the phenomenon of human trafficking.

5

Many media articles are superficial, stimulate primitive passions, and encourage or follow alleged affairs.

6

In a sensationalist approach to reporting, journalists often reveal the identity of victims of human trafficking, which leads to their additional stigmatization and revictimization, and stereotypes and assumptions about the profile of victims of human trafficking prevail over investigative journalism.

7

Real names, whereabouts or other information that could reveal the victim's identity must be omitted from any media release.

8

It is paramount that the victim of human trafficking cannot be recognized in a photo or video.

9

The victim, who is already severely traumatized, humiliated and harmed, is further victimized by irresponsible public presentation of information about his/her situation of exploitation.

10

A victim of human trafficking interviewed by a journalist has the right to:
- know who s/he is talking to;
- know the purpose of the interview;
- refuse to answer a question or to provide only information that s/he considers relevant;
- know what is being noted or recorded and review the material before it is published and delete or amend any information/statements previously made.

11

The journalist must know what the victim does not need to know: what the potential dangers are for him/her if s/he agrees to speak publicly, especially in front of the cameras.

12

The victim should be warned about the possible effects of publishing the story, and s/he should certainly be provided with professional legal advice and any other necessary advice.

13

If the victim, for any reason, is not able to assess the possible risks of publishing the article, journalists and editors must think about the best interests of the victim and do all to protect them from re-traumatization.

14

Adhere to ethical standards of journalism when interviewing a victim of human trafficking.

15

Do not pressurize the victim you are interviewing in any way that could be harmful to him/her.

16

Ask questions that are commensurate with the age of the victim (especially for child victims).

17

Do not ask questions about sexual abuse (especially when the victim is a child).

18

If the victim requests, be ready to end the conversation at any time.

19

Do not publish any material that may directly or indirectly harm the victim or someone from his/her immediate surroundings.

20

Avoid stereotypes and sensationalist approaches.

21

Do not publish photos showing the victim of human trafficking in a sexual context, especially if the victim is a child.

22

The media houses or news agencies that have comprehensive written procedures for dealing with sensitive cases, including human trafficking, act most professionally. Therefore, the recommendation to the editors is to develop victim protection procedures in reporting and ethical reporting standards.

23

If a journalist is working on a story for a media house that does not have procedures for protecting victims in reporting on their situation, or if it is an independent journalist, the so-called "freelancer" - the journalist should have a clear personal code of reporting based on general professional and ethical standards, including procedures in reporting on human trafficking.

24

If a journalist is working on a story about a specific victim, it is important not to reveal the victim's identity, address, or contacts to anyone, including other journalists, even when the story has already been published.

25

If the story could endanger the victim, the journalist must not publish the story. Sometimes the victim's life literally depends on the journalist's actions.

26

Victims' stories are the most interesting stories about human trafficking, but when working on such stories, a journalist must know that the victim's safety is the most important, and that the victim should be understood, not pitied.

27

The journalist should know when, what, and how to ask the victim, but also when to just keep quiet and listen.

28

Collaborate with other journalists dealing with this topic, including those from other countries. You will often give each other information that will gain real value only when exchanged, and you will all get an important story.

29

Ask your colleagues who have experience in reporting on human trafficking for advice.

30

Collaborate with experts who deal with trauma, especially those whose work is related to the issue of human trafficking.

Responsibility in Words: Media Coverage of Human Trafficking in Serbia

Autorka istraživanja 

Ivana Milošević, Head of Media Analysis & Research, Kliping

Istraživači na projektu 

Filip Barić, Senior Media Analyst

Tanja Jerinić, Media Analyst, Kliping

About the research

Human trafficking is one of the biggest global problems today, and the media plays a key role in shaping public awareness and understanding of this phenomenon. Through objective, balanced, and investigative reporting, the media not only inform the public about this complex problem but also initiate important discussions to strengthen legal frameworks and improve support for victims. Good journalism can also raise awareness of the signs and symptoms of human trafficking, and enable citizens to recognize, and report presumed cases, thus potentially saving lives, and contributing to the fight against this global crime.
The research on human trafficking covered the entire year 2022, and the analysis included all types of media – print, electronic, and internet portals . Print media sample includes all daily newspapers (Alo!, Blic, Danas, Informer, Kurir, Nova, Objektiv , Politika, Srpski telegraf and Večernje novosti), and three weeklies – NIN, Nedeljnik and Vreme. Electronic media included all televisions with national coverage (RTS 1, RTS 2, TV Pink, TV B92, Happy TV and TV Prva), and regional television N1, broadcasted on cable operator SBB, and TV Kurir, available to clients of Telekom Serbia. Internet portals included the top 5 most visited media in 2022 according to Gemius Rating data, namely Blic.rs, Kurir.rs, Telegraf.rs, Mondo.rs and Nova.rs.
To determine how and to what extent the media in Serbia report on human trafficking, a quantitative-qualitative methodology was used, with a single text being a unit of the analysis.
The quantitative dimension shows the representation of selected reports in the media in total, individually and by authors of the texts. The qualitative dimension included 5 basic categories for analyzing each individual publication:
  • Forms of human trafficking (sexual exploitation and forced prostitution, forced labour, forced begging, forced commission of crimes, organ trafficking (forced organ harvesting for the purpose of sale) and forced marriages). Also, two additional categories were introduced: the articles in which journalists reported on human trafficking in general, and those about the crime of “human trafficking” in the context of migration;
  • Thematic focus as a narrow reporting context;
  • Publicity, i.e. the importance of the topic of human trafficking (the main topic in the text and a secondary topic);
  • Type of headlines (informative and sensationalist);
  • Informativeness of the article – i.e., does the text/report inform about the fight against human trafficking?
The complex methodological approach implies cross-referencing two basic dimensions of the analysis, and therefore the data obtained in qualitative analysis are further quantitatively processed.

Data analysis

Quantitative

In 2022, there were 943 reports on human trafficking. By type of media, most media reports were published on internet portals (524), followed by the press (327) and television (92).

The frequency of reporting on human trafficking shows that most reports were published in October 2022 (125), September (107), and March (105) and most often the context was the imprisonment of suspects of the crime of trafficking in human beings. In October, in Belgrade suspects were questioned for forcing a minor into prostitution using fraud, force, and threats. September was marked by the arrest of a five-member group from Šabac and Loznica on suspicion of human trafficking and debt slavery. In March, individuals from Aleksinac were arrested in Niš, accused of human trafficking, abusing and pandering of a 20-year-old girl.

The most pieces in the analyzed period were published on April 5, 2022, when Ljubiša Vasić (55), owner of a restaurant from Mihajlovac near Smederevo, was arrested together with waiter J.J. (62) on suspicion of forcing the girls from his restaurant to engage in prostitution in secret rooms for orgies (Blic.rs).

Internet portals Kurir.rs (138), Telegraf.rs (133) and Blic.rs (114) published the most articles on human trafficking. As for print media, Politika (69), Večernje Novosti (67) and Danas (36) stand out. Among electronic media, the most TV programs were shown on the television of the daily newspaper Kurir (29, of which 13 in the morning program Redakcija), followed by Prva television (21 programs, of which 8 in the 150 minutes show) and TV N1, which broadcasted 18 TV programs (6 in Novi Dan and the central news program Dnevnik each).

Almost 50% of the reports have anonymous authors (468), followed by information carried from the Tanjug news agency (21 in total). As for individual authors, a journalist of Večernje novosti, with the initials Lj.P. published 11 articles on human trafficking.

In the analysed period, the topic of human trafficking appeared on 32 front pages, and in 10% of the total number of articles in press. The most articles, that is, 8 each, had headlines on front pages of Politika (Legal framework for the oldest profession; 20 migrants died in the sea, search for the missing; Credit Suisse kept the money of dictators and drug dealers for decades; Europe in trouble because of Scholz’s call to migrants; Who are Albanian terrorists targeting in Kosovo? Rambouillet was a frame for blackmail; Strategic partnership between Belgrade and Baku, and Heads at risk, life in a backpack) and Danas (Mocking victims and state institutions; Human traffickers embrace the digital revolution; Kossev: A total of 11 arrested for the rape of a girl in Kosovo; Father pimped his daughter, the state reacted only two years after; Darija Kisić plans to open a shelter that is already open; Linglong still favoured by the authorities; The government is preparing to “import” workers from Guatemala, Bangladesh and Vietnam, and I meet my attacker almost every day).

The analysis of media headlines shows that journalists often highlight human trafficking and prostitution in the headlines (12% of headlines each).

Qualitative

The research of media content has shown that media most frequently report on sexual exploitation and forced prostitution (380 reports, that is 40,30%) when they report on trafficking in human beings. This means that on average at least one article is published on this type of human trafficking. The analysis has additionally shown that portals Kurir.rs, Telegraf.rs and Blic.rs most frequently report on the topic. Večernje novosti is leading among print media, and Kurir TV among the electronic ones.

The second most frequent reporting is general media coverage of human trafficking in the context of different reports by NGOs and government institutions, Europole, marking of European Anti-Trafficking Day, conferences, and anti-trafficking trainings (270 reports, that is 28,63%).

Media reports in the context of migration follow, that is when journalists do not differentiate between situations of human trafficking and illegal border crossings by migrants. It is important to point out that human trafficking involves exploitation of people using force and fraud, while illegal border crossing of migrants with no valid documents does not necessarily imply human trafficking. Frequently, there are cases when Hungarian-Csech police patrols find a vehicle with foreign registration plates and a Serbian driver, with foreigners without valid documents for residence in Hungary. In such cases, journalists report that for the crime of human trafficking a penalty of one to five years of imprisonment, with aggravated circumstances 5 to 15 years, is stipulated in Hungary. In the mentioned case, although there is a suspicion, the mere involvement of migrants with no documents does not automatically imply human trafficking. In professional reporting we should refrain from making conclusions until all relevant facts and evidence are determined on the nature and circumstances of such cases.

Forced labour was the topic of 84 reports. Media in 2022 continued to report on terrifying living conditions for the workers on the tyre factory construction site of the Chinese company “Linglong” near Zrenjanin (Blic.rs). Besides, in September 2022 in Belgrade a regional conference on the fight against human trafficking for labour exploitation took place. More than 100 participants from Bosnia and Hercegovina, North Macedonia, Serbia and other countries and international organisations gathered at two-day conference “The fight against labour trafficking in Europe: standards, reality and new action strategies”, to consider strategies for the fight against trafficking for labour exploitation, the crime affecting an increasing number of women, men and children, both transnationally and internally, within each country. (Telegraf.rs).

At the fifth place there is organ trafficking (forced organ harvesting for the purpose of sale), which was found in 50 media reports within the research, and most frequently on Kurir.rs portal (12). It has been mentioned most frequently in the context of alleged events in Kosovo, so the Albanian Prime Minister Edi Rama sent a letter to the Council of Europe member states and asked them to reject the report on organ trafficking by Dick Marty (Blic.rs).

Forced begging follows (39 reports, that is 4,14%), and the news that marked 2022 was that in September, members of the Serbian Ministry of the Interior, together with the Higher Public Prosecutor’s Office in Šabac, arrested a five-member international criminal group accused of trafficking in human beings. The group operated in Serbia and Italy and forced people into dept slavery from 2016 to 2022 by borrowing them money with high interest rates. It is suspected that the victims were forced to beg in Italy to repay the debts (Nova.rs).

A total of 27 media articles reported on forced marriages. News in focus in the previous year in Montenegro was when the police there accused K. M. (31) and B. M. (38) from Kosovo, residing in Podgorica, for arranging marriage of a 12-year-old girl, the daughter of K.M. and a 12-year-old boy from that family for the purpose of financial gain (Blic.rs). Forced commission of crimes was on the last place with only one report in 2022.

Forms of human trafficking No. of reports %
1 Sexual exploitation and forced prostitution 380 40,30%
2 Human trafficking – general 270 28,63%
3 Crime of “human trafficking” in the context of migration 92 9,76%
4 Forced labour 84 8,91%
5 Organ trafficking (organ harvesting for the purpose of sale) 50 5,30%
6 Forced begging 39 4,14%
7 Forced marriages 27 2,86%
8 Forced commission of crime 1 0,11%
Total 943

Analysis of thematic focus shows that arrests and trials for human trafficking are the topics of almost half of the texts (49.95%). Another significant category in media reporting on human trafficking includes the topic of fighting against human trafficking, with a total of 48 pieces. These texts focused, among other things, on the training of employees in the hospitality industry to identify human trafficking (Politika), as well as on instructions targeting the readers and viewers on how to recognise this problem and what exactly it entails. The media reported timely on various events aimed at combating human trafficking, including conferences, workshops, and campaigns. Public attention was attracted by the campaign “How close are you?”, which NGO ASTRA started on September 21, aiming to provide information and prevent human trafficking. On that occasion, the installation “Labyrinth of Human Trafficking” was arranged on Republic Square in Belgrade. ASTRA wanted to show the experience of victims of labour trafficking to the citizens. The research showed that the media in Serbia also report in the context of the crisis in Ukraine (3%) and that refugee women and children from Ukraine are more and more falling victims of human traffickers after they escape the horrors of war in their homeland and come to the EU. Human rights NGOs have warned of this danger and appealed to the EU member states to increase control (Kurir.rs). In 17 reports, there were confessions of human trafficking victims. One of them was Nevena Mitić, a victim of human trafficking, who was taken to the Netherlands in 1995, where she was forced into prostitution for two years. After one person took her away from the trafficking chain, another one found her and saved her. Her life was put to the test, her youth was taken away from her, but the experience made her stronger and she decided to share her story to encourage other women.

Thematic focus (Top 10) No. of reports %
1 Arrests and trials of traffickers in human beings 471 49,95%
2 Fight against human trafficking 48 5,09%
3 Alleged organ trafficking in Kosovo 44 4,67%
4 On the phenomenon in general 43 4,56%
5 Conferences, workshops, and campaigns on the fight against human trafficking 28 2,97%
6 Ukrainian crisis 24 2,55%
7 Case of “Linglong” factory workers 24 2,55%
8 Statistics on human trafficking victims 19 2,01%
9 Testimonies of human trafficking victims 17 1,80%
10 US State Department’s TIP Report for 2022. 12 1,27%
Total 730
The topic of human trafficking was the main one in 563 reports (59.70%), while the importance of this topic in 380 articles was secondary (40,30%).

One of the criteria in the analysis were the headlines, which play a key role in professional and objective journalism because they are often the first contact with readers, especially online, as many do not read the entire content. The analysis showed that, unfortunately, more than half of the headlines were sensationalist. This way of reporting often downplays the seriousness of the situation and may lead to stigmatization and further traumatization of the victims. It may also prevent victims from seeking help and support because they feel ashamed and misunderstood. In addition, such an approach can create unrealistic public perception of human trafficking, making it difficult to tackle the problem effectively and compassionately. Kurir.rs leads in the number of sensationalist titles, such as: A GIRL (20) FROM ALEKSINAC WAS PIMPED FOR MONEY, AND LATER SOLD; She was invited to babysit, and then FORCED INTO PROSTITUTION; THEY HAVE NO COMPASSION! A pregnant madam and her boyfriend abused an ORPHAN and forced her into prostitution to pay back a fabricated debt; THE WAITER OFFERED ME S*X WITH PROSTITUTES IN A RESTAURANT: A witness at the trial told how Ljubiša Vasić pimped the girls; A WOMAN FROM NIŠ SOLD FOR 1,000 DINARS, THEY LIVED IN A VAN: Human traffickers from Aleksinac were imprisoned; MY DAD DID THAT TO ME! After TERRIBLE testimony of a girl from Subotica, MONSTROUS father got imprisoned for 12 years; DISTURBING! SLAUGHTERING AND KILLING OF SERBS! ORGANS HARVESTED FOR SALE: Vulin: Film “The Yellow House” is what we in Serbia owe to the victims!

Sensationalist headlines are also seen in other media, such as: HE GOT BONER WHILE BEING ARRESTED! (Alo!), HE DRUGED POOR WOMEN AND FORCED THEM INTO PROSTITUTION! (Alo!), THEY ABUSED THE GIRL, THEN SOLD HER FOR 200 EUROS FOR MARRIAGE (Blic), “HIT HER FACE, GRAB HER NECK” Who is controversial influencer Andrew Tate and why did he live in OUR NEIGHBORHOOD: He is suspected of rape and human trafficking (Blic.rs), A DISABLED PERSON FORCED TO BEGG He had to bring 100 euros a day, they tortured him for 7 years: Prosecution against the FAMILY FROM HELL, they are free awaiting the verdict (Blic.rs), They forced the nanny into prostitution, THEN THEY SOLD HER INTO WHITE SLAVERY (Informer), A RUSSIAN WOMAN SOLD A BABY TO GET MONEY FOR PLASTIC SURGERY! A couple bought a 5-day-old child, but something gave them away! (Mondo.rs), Prosecution against the five: The girl was forced into prostitution, raped with a broom (Nova.rs), He sold his daughter for 10,000 euros (Objektiv), 11 MANIACS RAPED A GIRL (Srpski telegraf), We were in the brothel “The first hairstyles of Serbia”: The prices of the girls depend on one thing, and you enter through a secret corridor (Telegraf.rs), They took up to 5,000 euros per night (Večernje novosti) and Sold his daughter for 2,000 euros (Večernje novosti).

The daily newspaper Politika leads in the number of informative headlines, such as: Knowledge and education against human trafficking; Free training for women from vulnerable groups; Seka Sablić’s brother is imprisoned in Serbia; Children who live and earn money on the street need support; Father gets 12 years in prison for abusing his underage daughter; Labour exploitation as a new form of slavery; Workers from Vietnam without adequate protection and Human trafficking – from sexual exploitation to selling organs.

In addition to sensationalist headlines, reporting on human trafficking is often accompanied by disturbing images or illustrations. Such visual content can significantly affect the quality and perception of reporting because it can enhance the emotional impact of the articles, but at the same time there is a risk of secondary victimization and traumatic reactions of readers/viewers.

The research has shown that 166 reports inform readers/viewers on the trafficking in human beings and have educational content. The leading media is Politika daily paper, which, for example, dealt with legal framework for the legalisation of prostitution and its potential impact on the fight against human trafficking. Kurir.rs is on the second place. It has investigated how one falls victim of human trafficking, warned how to recognise the websites where potential predators recruit victims. Anti-trafficking NGOs, like ASTRA and Atina also contributed to this topic and to the education of the public. Other 777 articles most often had the format of statistical reports and reported on daily events.

Conclusion

The research of media coverage of trafficking in human beings in 2022 indicates an intensive focus on the issue in Serbia. With a total of 943 reports, the leaders were internet portals, while print media and TV coverages were also significant.

The analysis showed that the media mostly informed on arrests and trials related to the trafficking of human beings, with a special focus on sexual exploitation which amounted to 40% of the total reports. Besides, the analysis showed that the media published educational content on the fight against human trafficking in a significant number of reports on conferences, workshops, campaigns, and training, emphasizing the importance of prevention and raising awareness of the phenomenon.

However, despite the efforts, a significant number of headlines appeared to have a sensationalist approach, which might influence the public perception and attitude towards victims of human trafficking. Sensationalism in the headlines and disturbing images may lead to secondary victimization of trafficked persons and their stigmatization, which is a challenge for responsible journalism. Also, the issue of wrong interpretation of the migrant situation has been noted, which adds to the complexity of the issue. Often, the reports on migrants with no valid papers were hastily interpreted as human trafficking cases, without due research or corroboration. This aspect shows the need for professional and in-depth journalism, which differentiates between human trafficking and illegal migrations.

The media play a twofold role in reporting on human trafficking. On one hand, they have the power to educate and raise awareness on this complex topic. On the other hand, sensationalist headlines and disturbing visual material indicate the need for enhanced responsibility and ethical standards in journalism. In media reporting on human trafficking, journalists should pay special attention to the way of reporting and avoid sensationalist headlines, thus respecting the privacy and dignity of victims. It is important to highlight educational content in order to raise awareness of the issue and the responses, while thoroughly researching and documenting each case. A balanced reporting that humanizes the victims, cooperation with experts, rejects the stereotypes, as well as transparency of sources, are key to safeguarding objective reporting on this complex topic. By such approach, media does not only contribute to a more reasonable and accurate reporting but also actively participates in the making of an informed society with effective response to human trafficking.

Trgovina ljudima - Priručnik za novinare

Reč terapeutkinje

Setite se neke situacije u kojoj ste doživele/i neki vid zloupotrebe, pretnje, nasilja… Kada ste osetile/i intezivan strah za sebe i svoje bližnje i gubitak kontrole u važnim oblastima života. Ovu situaciju je možda karakterisala izolacija, nedostatak podrške i bespomoćnost. Osećanje stida učinilo je da želite da nestanete, a osećanje krivice što vam se „to” događa vas je preplavljavalo, čak i ako ste jasno znali da ničim niste doprineli povredi koja vam je naneta. Govorimo o iskustvu u kome su vaša osećanja, intimnost, bezbednost, integritet, dostojanstvo, čast, telo doživeli neki vid ugrožavanja. Bilo vam je teško da ovo iskustvo poverite drugoj osobi, plašili ste se da vam neće poverovati… Nažalost, vaša strepnja je bila opravdana: mnogi su sumnjičavo vrteli glavom, uveravali vas da to “nije bilo baš tako”, a da “nije ni tako važno”, ili su pravili neslane šale…

Pozivam sve čitateljke i čitaoce ovog Priručnika da zamisle hipotetičku situaciju, u kojoj bi vaše bolno iskustvo iz tek prizvanog sećanja bilo obnarodovano u štampanim, vizuelnim, digitalnim medijima – sa punim imenom ili sa inicijalima. Istinito preneto, polulažno ili lažno opisano, ali posle čega se svako može osetiti pozvanim da u komentarima dodatno povredi, uvredi, zastraši. Pored toga, molim vas da zamislite da će to zauvek ostati u sferi virtuelne stvarnosti, interneta, clouda. Jedan klik će uvek biti dovoljan da se vaša trauma iznova eksploatiše, iz različitih, a najčešće nečasnih pobuda.

Posledice neprofesionalnog izveštavanja za sve žrtve direktno predstavljaju novi oblik nasilja, a posebno kada govorimo o preživelima trauma trgovine ljudima, kompleksne traume koja se klasifikuje kao tortura (najozbiljniji atak na ljudski život). Takođe, svaki put kada ugledaju sebe, svoje ime ili inicijale, ili kada nasilnici (trgovci ljudima, njihovi pomagači, naklonjeni predstavnici medija, institucija i sredine u kojoj žive) dobiju javni prostor da svoj zločin negiraju ili da o njemu govore u hvalospevima, preživeli ponovo postaju žrtve, iznova prolazeći kroz traumu koju su već doživeli. I ne samo to – kroz opisana neetična postupanja doživljavaju još jedan vid nasilja. Spirala nasilja se ne zaustavlja.

Ono što je, pored individualnih razlika, svim preživelima potrebno, može da se sažme u „formulu 5P”: podrška, poverenje, povezanost, pomoć i prijateljstvo. Da se najpre osete bezbedno, kako bi povrede bar donekle zacelile, a da se zatim dosegne pravda. Nastavak života, uz osećaj da je budućnost izvesna, neodvojiv je od vraćanje vere u sopstvene vrednosti i u ljude oko sebe. Od suštinskog je značaja da preživele/i ponovo osete istinsku povezanost sa drugima. Tek tada možemo upotrebiti termin – integracija.
„Sukob između želje da se negiraju strašni događaji i želje da se o njima govori, ključ je dinamike psihološke traume“, rekla je autorka J. L. Herman u knjizi „Trauma i oporavak“.

Prethodni citat upućuje na to koliko je delikatno stanje preživelih, a samim tim i kompleksnost izveštavanja o događajima i bolnim iskustvima ovih ljudi, njihovih bližnjih i pogođenih zajednica. Kako izveštavanjem o traumi trgovine ljudima ne bi postali simbolični saučesnici nasilja, pozivam vas da štitite tajnost ličnih podataka, svedočenja žrtava, njihove časti i dostojanstva, ljudskih i građanskih prava, a posebno prava dece žrtava.

Kroz psihoterapijski rad sa preživelima traume trgovine ljudima naučila sam da one većinski žele da se u javnosti i medijima o trgovini ljudima govori i piše kao o brutalnom, organizovanom kriminalu. Preživelima je posebno važno da se spreči da nova deca, devojke, žene i muškarci dožive njihovo iskustvo. Najzad, onda kada preživele/i imaju snažnu potrebu da sve ispričaju − u kameru ili u diktafon, i tada treba imati na umu da ste od njih svakako moćniji, a da samim tim treba da ih zaštitite od preteranog izlaganja i moguće odmazde. Izveštavanje o opasnostima po decu i ljude, rizicima, samozaštiti, institucijama i organizacijama čija je nadležnost prevencija i zaštita žrtava, najbolji je način društveno odgovornog izveštavanja o trgovini ljudima. Istovremeno, to je nemerljiva podrška preživelima.

Međutim, i kada se sve završi, za preživele rane ostaju unutra. Profesionalna etika novinarki i novinara, urednica i urednika, fotografkinja i fotografa, čestitost, poštovanje i empatija predstavljaju važnu kariku u oporavku osoba koje su preživele traumu trgovine ljudima.

Pozivam vas da se prisetite mentalne vežbe sa početka ovog teksta kad god izveštavate o trgovini ljudima, rodno zasnovanom nasilju, nasilju nad decom i drugim formama nasilja u kojima su ljudi i njihovi bližnji doživeli povrede ili su, nažalost, izgubili život.

Srdačno vas pozdravljam,
Biljana Slavković
Psihoterapeutkinja, Institut za psihodramu

Preporuke

Ovo poglavlje zamišljeno je kao sažetak ključnih informacija o trgovini ljudima i upustava kako etički izveštavati o toj temi.

Šta je trgovina ljudima?
  • Trgovina ljudima jedna je od najunosnijih kriminalnih aktivnosti.
  • Žrtva trgovine ljudima može postati svako, bez obzira na pol, starost, nacionalnu pripadnost, religijska i druga uverenja, stepen obrazovanja i mesto stanovanja.
  • Nisu svi ilegalni migranti žrtve trgovine ljudima, ali često su trgovina ljudima i ilegalne migracije povezani procesi; bilo da su žrtve trgovine ljudima ilegalno prebacivane preko granica, bilo da ilegalni migratni postaju žrtve trgovine pod prisilom organizatora ilegalnih migracija.
  • Ključan element trgovine ljudima je eksploatacija.
  • Dva su najčešća vida eksploatacije žrtava trgovine ljudima: seksualna eksploatacija i radna eksploatacija, a nije retka ni kombinacija ova dva vida eksploatacije.
  • Žrtve su često odvedene u njima nepoznatu sredinu, udaljenu od njihovog mesta stanovanja, a ponekad i tamo gde se govori njima nepoznat jezik, da bi se lakše kontrolisale, i kako bi im se onemogućilo bekstvo.
  • Najčešći mehanizmi kontrole su: zatočeništvo/izolacija; pretnja i upotreba nasilja / izazivanje straha, uključujući pretnje represalijama prema žrtvinoj porodici; dužničko ropstvo − obaveza vraćanja (često izmišljenog) duga;
  • Žrtve se ponekad prisiljavaju da i same čine kaznena dela, tada govorimo o vidu trgovine ljudima pod nazivom prinuda na vršenje krivičnih dela.
  • Uz fizičko iskorišćavanje žrtve uvek doživljavaju i psihološku traumu.
  • Spasenim žrtvama potrebna je dugotrajna stručna pomoć u rehabilitaciji kako bi se ponovo uključile u društvo. Ali u nekim slučajevima, čak kada su i svi vidovi pomoći i podrške dostupni, nije moguće u potpunosti ukloniti štetu od proživljene traume.
Kako izveštavati o trgovini ljudima – najveće zablude i greške i kako ih sprečiti
  • Uz međunarodne konvencije i ostala dokumenta koja se posredno ili neposredno primenjuju (i) na trgovinu ljudima, važno je znati kako tu temu tretiraju nacionalna zakonodavstva.
  • Trgovina ljudima može se obraditi kroz niz aspekata: ekonomski, politički, ženska prava/ljudska prava, pravni, sigurnosni, organizovani kriminal itd. Izaberite za priču onaj aspekt o kojem se najmanje pisalo. Veća je mogućnost da ćete reći nešto novo.
  • Ljudi kojima mediji prenose vaše priče, a nažalost ponekad i novinari/ke i urednici/e, često ne prave razliku između ilegalnih migracija, međunarodne prostitucije i trgovine ženama.
  • O trgovini ženama najviše se izveštava nakon što u javnost dospe informacija o pronalasku žrtve trgovine, uglavnom žena prisiljenih na prostituciju, ali to najčešće nije iskorišćeno kao povod za dugoročno analitičko izveštavanje o fenomenu trgovine ljudima.
  • Veliki broj objavljenih medijskih priloga je površan, podilazi niskim strastima, te podstiče ili prati nedokumentovane afere.
  • Često novinari/ke senzacionalističkim pristupom u izveštavanju otkrivaju identitet žrtava trgovine ljudima, što dovodi do njihove dodatne stigmatizacije u društvu i reviktimizacije, a stereotipi i pretpostavke o profilu žrtava trgovine ljudima preovladavaju nad istraživačkim novinarstvom.
  • Prava imena, mesto boravka ili druge informacije koje bi mogle otkriti identitet žrtve moraju biti izostavljene iz svake medijske objave.
  • Najbitnije je da žrtva trgovine ljudima ne može biti prepoznata na fotografiji ili video-snimku.
  • Žrtva koja je već teško traumatizovana, ponižena i oštećena, dodatno se viktimizuje neodgovornom javnim iznošenjem informacija o situaciji eksploatacije u kojoj se zatekla.
  • Žrtva trgovine ljudima koja razgovara s novinarom ima pravo da:
      • zna s kim razgovara;
      • zna u koje svrhe će razgovor biti upotrebljen;
      • odbije da odgovori na bilo koje pitanje ili da samo informacije koje ona smatra bitnim;
      • ima uvid u to šta se zapisuje ili snima, i dobije mogućnost da pregleda materijal pre objavljivanja i slobodu da izbriše ili izmeni bilo koju informaciju/izjavu koju je prethodno dala.
  • Novinar/ka mora da zna i ono što žrtva ne mora: kakve su moguće opasnosti za žrtvu ukoliko pristane da javno govori, pogotovo pred kamerama.
  • Žrtvi treba objasniti koje su moguće loše strane objavljivanja priče, i svakako joj omogućiti stručan pravni i svaki drugi potreban savet.
  • Ukoliko žrtva iz bilo kog razloga nije u mogućnosti da sama proceniti moguće opasnosti od objavljivanja priloga, novinari i urednici dužni su da razmišljaju o najboljem interesu žrtve i učine sve da je zaštite od retraumatizacije.
  • Pridržavajte se etičkih standarda novinarstva tokom razgovora sa žrtvom trgovine ljudima.
  • Ni na koji način ne stvarajte pritisak na žrtvu koju intervjuišete, a koji može biti štetan po nju/njega.
  • Postavljajte pitanja koja su u skladu sa uzrastom/starošću žrtve (naročito kada u pitanju deca žrtve).
  • Ne postavljajte pitanja o seksualnoj zloupotrebi (naročito kada je u pitanju dete žrtva).
  • Ukoliko žrtva to zatraži, budite spremni da u svakom trenutku prekinete razgovor.
  • Ne objavljujte materijal koji direktno ili indirektno može štetiti žrtvi ili nekome iz njene/njegove neposredne okoline.
  • Izbegavajte stereotipe i senzacionalistički pristup.
  • Ne objavljujte fotografije na kojima je žrtva trgovine ljudima prikazana u seksualnom kontekstu, a naročito ako je u pitanju dete žrtva.
  • Najprofesionalnije se ponašaju one medijske kuće ili redakcije koje imaju razrađenu pisanu proceduru postupanja u osetljivim slučajevima, uključujući i trgovinu ljudima. Zato, preporuka uredništvu – razvijte procedure zaštite žrtava prilikom izveštavanja i standarde etičkog izveštavanja.
  • Ako novinar/ka radi priču za medijsku kuću koja nema procedure zaštite žrtava prilikom izveštavanja o njihovoj situaciji ili je reč o nezavisnom novinaru/ki, tzv. „slobodnjaku“ − novinar/ka treba da ima jasan lični kodeks izveštavanja temeljen na opštim profesionalnim i etičkim standardima, uključujući postupke u specifičnim slučajevima izveštavanja o trgovni ljudima.
  • Ako novinar/ka radi na priči o konkretnoj žrtvi, važno je da identitet žrtve, adresu ili kontakte ne otkriva nikome, uključujući i druge novinare/ke, čak i kad je priča već objavljena.
  • Ako bi priča mogla da ugrozi žrtvu, obaveza novinara je da takvu priču ne objavi. Ponekad od postupaka novinara doslovno zavisi žrtvin život.
  • Priče žrtava su ljudima najzanimljivije priče o trgovini ljudima, ali radeći takve priče novinar/ka mora da zna da je sigurnost žrtve najvažnija, te da žrtvu treba razumeti, ne sažaljevati.
  • Novinar/ka treba da zna kada, šta i kako treba pitati žrtvu, ali i kada treba samo ćutati i slušati.
  • Sarađujte s drugim novinarima/kama koji se bave ovom temom, uključujući i one iz drugih zemalja. Često ćete jedni drugima dati podatke koji će tek razmenjeni dobiti pravu vrednost, a svi ćete tako dobiti važnu priču.
  • Pitajte za savet kolege/nice koji/e imaju iskustvo izveštavanja o trgovini ljudima.
  • Sarađujte sa stručnjacima/kinjama koji se bave traumama, a posebno onima koji/e su u radu vezani za temu trgovine ljudima.

Medijska prezentacija trgovine ljudima Odgovornost u rečima

Medijska perspektiva o trgovini ljudima u Srbiji

O istraživanju

Trgovina ljudima predstavlja jedan od najvećih globalnih problema današnjice, a mediji igraju ključnu ulogu u oblikovanju javne svesti i razumevanju ovog fenomena. Objektivnim, balansiranim i istraživačkim izveštavanjem, mediji ne samo da informišu javnost o ovom kompleksnom problemu, već i pokreću važne diskusije koje mogu dovesti do jačanja zakonskih okvira i poboljšanja podrške žrtvama. Kvalitetno novinarstvo takođe može da podigne svest o znacima i simptomima koji ukazuju na trgovinu ljudima, što može omogućiti građanima da prepoznaju i prijave sumnjive slučajeve, potencijalno spasavajući živote i doprinoseći borbi protiv ovog globalnog zločina.

Istraživanje o trgovini ljudima obuhvatilo je celu 2022. godinu, a analizom su uključene sve vrste medija – štampani, elektronski i internet portali . Od štampanih medija uzorkom su obuhvaćene sve informativne dnevne novine (Alo!, Blic, Danas, Informer, Kurir, Nova, Objektiv , Politika, Srpski telegraf i Večernje novosti), kao i tri nedeljnika – NIN, Nedeljnik i Vreme. Elektronski mediji uključili su sve televizije sa nacionalnom frekvencijom (RTS 1, RTS 2, TV Pink, TV B92, Happy TV i TV Prva), kao i regionalnu televiziju N1 koja se emituje na kablovskom operateru SBB i TV Kurir koja je dostupna za korisnike kompanije Telekom Srbija. Internet portali obuhvatili su top 5 najposećenijih medija u 2022. godini prema podacima Gemius Rating-a i to Blic.rs, Kurir.rs, Telegraf.rs, Mondo.rs i Nova.rs .

S ciljem da se utvrdi kako i u kojoj meri mediji u Srbiji izveštavaju o trgovini ljudima korišćena je kvantitativno-kvalitativna metodologija u kojem je jedinica analize pojedinačni tekst.

Kvantitativna dimenzija pokazuje stepen zastupljenosti selektovanih objava u medijima ukupno, pojedinačno i prema autorima tekstova. Kvalitativna dimenzija operacionalizovana je u 5 osnovnih kategorija na osnovu kojih je analizirana svaka pojedinačna objava:

  • Oblici trgovine ljudima (seksualna eksploatacija i prinudna prostitucija, prinudni rad, prinudno prosjačenje, prinuda na vršenje krivičnih dela, trgovina organima (prinudno uzimanje organa radi njihove prodaje) i prinudni brakovi); Osim toga uvedene su i dve dodatne kategorije, i to za tekstove u kojima su novinari uopšteno izveštavali o trgovini ljudima, kao i objave o krivičnom delu “trgovina ljudima” u kontekstu migranata;
  • Tematski fokus kao uži kontekst izveštavanja;
  • Publicitet, odnosno značaj teme trgovine ljudima (glavna tema u tekstu i sporedna tema);
  • Vrsta naslova (informativni i senzacionalistički);
  • Informisanost teksta – odnosno da li tekst/prilog informiše o borbi protiv trgovine ljudima?

Kompleksni metodološki pristup podrazumeva ukrštanje dve osnovne dimenzije analize, pa su stoga podaci dobijeni kvalitativnom analizom, zatim i kvantitativno obrađeni.

Analiza podataka

Kvantitativni deo

Tokom 2022. godine beležimo 943 objave o trgovini ljudima. Prema vrsti medija, najviše medijskih tekstova objavljeno je na internet portalima (524), slede štampa (327) i televizije (92).

Učestalost izveštavanja o trgovini ljudima pokazuje da je najveći broj tekstova objavljen u oktobru 2022. godine (125), septembru (107), martu (105) i to najčešće u kontekstu različitih hapšenja osumnjičenih da su počinili delo trgovine ljudima. U oktobru su u Beogradu saslušani osumnjičeni za prisiljavanje maloletnice na prostituciju koristeći prevaru, silu i pretnje. Septembar je obeležilo hapšenje petočlane grupe iz Šapca i Loznice zbog sumnje na trgovinu ljudima i dužničko ropstvo. U martu su u Nišu uhapšeni pojedinci iz Aleksinca, optuženi za trgovinu ljudima, zlostavljanje i podvođenje dvadesetogodišnje devojke.

Najveći broj tekstova u analiziranom periodu objavljen je 5. aprila 2022. godine kada je Ljubiša Vasić (55), vlasnik kafane iz Mihajlovca kod Smedereva, uhapšen zajedno s konobarom J. J. (62) zbog sumnje da je u tajnim sobama za orgije, koje su se nalazile u njegovom lokalu, primoravao devojke da se bave prostitucijom (Blic.rs).

Internet portali Kurir.rs (138), Telegraf.rs (133) i Blic.rs (114) objavili su najveći broj tekstova o trgovini ljudima. Od štampanih medija izdvajaju se Politika (69), Večernje novosti (67) i Danas (36). Kada su u pitanju elektronski mediji najveći broj TV priloga emitovan je na televiziji dnevnog lista Kurir (29, od čega 13 u jutarnjem programu Redakcija), sledi Prva televizija (21 prilog, od čega 8 u emisiji 150 minuta) i TV N1 koja je emitovala 18 TV priloga (po 6 u Novom danu i centralnoj informativnoj emisiji Dnevnik).

Skoro 50% objava nema imenovane autore (468), dok su na drugom mestu informacije preuzete od novinske agencije Tanjug (21 ukupno). Od pojedinačnih autora, novinar Večernjih novosti, pod inicijalima Lj.P. objavio je 11 tekstova u kojima se izveštava o trgovini ljudima.

Tema trgovina ljudima u analiziranom periodu našla se na 32 naslove strane, odnosno 10% tekstova od ukupnog broja objava u štampi. Najveći broj njih, odnosno po 8 tekstova, našlo se na naslovnim stranama Politike (Pravni okvir za najstariji zanat; U moru stradalo 20 migranata, potraga za nestalima; Kredi Svic decenijama čuvao pare diktatora i dilera droge; Evropa u problemu zbog Šolcovog poziva migrantima; Koga nišane albanski teroristi na Kosmetu; Rambuje je bio okvir za ucene; Strateško partnerstvo Beograda i Bakua i Glava u torbi, životu rancu) i Danasa (Ruganje i žrtvama i državnim institucijama; Trgovci ljudima prihvatili digitalnu revoluciju; Kossev: Ukupno 11 uhapšenih zbog silovanja devojčice na Kosovu; Otac podvodio ćerku, država reagovala tek posle dve godine; Darija Kisić planira otvaranje prihvatilišta koje je već otvoreno; Linglong i dalje miljenik vlasti; Vlada sprema „uvoz“ radnika iz Gvatemale, Bangladeša i Vijetnama i Svog napadača srećem skoro svakoga dana).

Analiza medijskih naslova pokazuje da novinari u naslovnim blokovima često ističu trgovinu ljudima i prostituciju (po 12% naslova).

Kvalitativni deo

Istraživanje medijskog sadržaja pokazalo je da mediji najčešće u kontekstu trgovine ljudima izveštavaju o seksualnoj eksploataciji i prinudnoj prostituciji (380 objava, odnosno 40,30%). To znači da se prosečno makar jedan tekst dnevno objavi o ovom obliku trgovine ljudima. Analiza je dodatno pokazala da portali Kurir.rs, Telegraf.rs i Blic.rs najčešće izveštavaju o ovoj temi, dok se od štampanih medija izdvajaju Večernje novosti, a elektronskih Kurir TV.

Na drugom mestu je uopšteno izveštavanje medija o trgovini ljudima i to u kontekstu različitih izveštaja nevladinih i državnih institucija, Evropola, obeležavanja Evropskog dana borbe protiv trgovine ljudima, konferencija, ali i edukacija o borbi protiv ovog fenomena (270 objava, odnosno 28,63%).

Sledi pisanje medija u kontekstu migranata, odnosno kada novinari ne prave razliku između trgovine ljudima i situacija u kojima migranti nelegalno prelaze granice. Važno je napomenuti da trgovina ljudima uključuje eksploataciju osoba kroz prisilu, obmanu, dok nelegalno prelaženje granice sa migrantima bez validnih dokumenata ne podrazumeva nužno trgovinu ljudima. Neretki su primeri da je mađarsko-češka policijska patrola otkrila vozilo stranih registarskih oznaka, koje je vozio državljanin Srbije, sa strancima bez validnih dokumenata za boravak u Mađarskoj. U tim slučajevima novinari navode da je za krivično delo trgovine ljudima u Mađarskoj zaprećena kazna od jedne do pet godina zatvora, uz otežavajuće okolnosti od 5 do 15 godina. U navedenom slučaju, iako postoji sumnja, samo prisustvo migranata bez dokumenata ne implicira automatski trgovinu ljudima. Profesionalno izveštavanje zahteva uzdržavanje od zaključaka dok se ne utvrde sve relevantne činjenice i dokazi o prirodi i okolnostima ovakvih slučajeva.

Prinudni rad bio je tema 84 objave. Tako su mediji i u 2022. godini nastavili da izveštavaju o užasavajućim uslovima u kojima su živeli radnici kineske kompanije „Linglong“, koja kod Zrenjanina gradi fabriku guma (Blic.rs). Osim toga, u septembru 2022. godine u Beogradu je održana regionalna konferencija o borbi protiv trgovine ljudima u svrhu radne eksploatacije. Više od 100 učesnika i učesnica iz Bosne i Hercegovine, Severne Makedonije, Srbije i drugih zemalja i međunarodnih organizacija, okupilo se na dvodnevnoj konferenciji „Borba protiv trgovine ljudima u svrhu radne eksploatacije u Evropi: standardi, realnost i nove strategije delovanja“, kako bi razmotrili strategije za borbu protiv trgovine ljudima u svrhu eksploatacije, zločina koji pogađa sve veći broj žena, muškaraca i dece, kako transnacionalno, tako i interno u okviru pojedinačnih zemalja (Telegraf.rs).

Na petom mestu je trgovina organima (prinudno uzimanje organa radi njihove prodaje) koja je u istraživanju bila u 50 medijskih tekstova i to najviše na portalu Kurir.rs (12). Najčešće pominjanje je u kontekstu nerasvetljenih dešavanja na Kosovu i Metohiji, pa je tako albanski premijer Edi Rama uputio pismo državama članicama Saveta Evrope u kojem je zatražio da odbace izveštaj Dika Martija o trgovini ljudskim organima (Blic.rs).

Sledi prinudno prosjačenje (39 objava, odnosno 4,14%), a jedna od vesti koja je obeležila 2022. godinu je da su u septembru pripadnici Ministarstva unutrašnjih poslova Srbije, zajedno sa Višim javnim tužilaštvom u Šapcu, uhapsili petočlanu međunarodnu kriminalnu grupu osumnjičenu za trgovinu ljudima. Grupa je delovala na teritoriji Srbije i Italije, dovodeći ljude u dužničko ropstvo od 2016. do 2022. godine, dajući im novac sa visokim kamatama. Sumnja se da su žrtve zatim bile primorane da vraćaju dugove prosjačenjem u Italiji (Nova.rs).

O prinudnim brakovima izveštavalo je 27 medijskih tekstova, a jedna od vesti koja je bila u fokusu u godini za nama dolazi iz Crne Gore kada je tamošnja policija podnela krivičnu prijavu protiv K. M. (31) i B. M. (38), sa Kosova, nastanjenih u Podgorici, zbog ugovaranja braka 12-godišnje devojčice, ćerke K.M. i 12-godišnjeg dečaka iz te porodice radi sticanja novčane koristi (Blic.rs). Na poslednjem mestu našla se prinuda na vršenje krivičnih dela sa jednom medijskom objavom u 2022. godini.

Oblici trgovine ljudima Broj objava %
1 Seksualna eksploatacija i
prinudna prostitucija
380 40,30%
2 Trgovina ljudima - uopšteno 270 28,63%
3 Krivično delo „trgovina ljudima“
u kontekstu migranata
92 9,76%
4 Prinudni rad 84 8,91%
5 Trgovina organima (prinudno uzimanje
organa radi njihove prodaje)
50 5,30%
6 Prinudno prosjačenje 39 4,14%
7 Prinudni brakovi 27 2,86%
8 Prinuda na vršenje krivičnih dela 1 0,11%
Total 943

Analiza tematskih fokusa pokazuje da su hapšenja i suđenja zbog trgovine ljudima zastupljeni u skoro polovini tekstova (49,95%). Druga značajna kategorija u medijskom izveštavanju o trgovini ljudima obuhvata temu borbe protiv ovog fenomena, sa ukupno 48 objava. Ovi tekstovi su se, između ostalog, fokusirali na edukaciju zaposlenih u hotelijerstvu o prepoznavanju znakova trgovine ljudima (Politika), kao i na medijska uputstva namenjena čitaocima i gledaocima o tome kako identifikovati ovaj problem i šta on tačno podrazumeva. Mediji su blagovremeno izveštavali o različitim događajima usmerenim na borbu protiv trgovine ljudima, uključujući konferencije, radionice i kampanje. Posebnu pažnju privukla je kampanja pod nazivom „Koliko si blizu?“, koju je nevladina organizacija ASTRA 21. septembra započela u cilju informisanja i prevencije trgovine ljudima. Tim povodom je na Trgu republike u Beogradu postavljena instalacija „Lavirint trgovine ljudima“, kojom je ASTRA želela da približi građanima iskustvo žrtava trgovine ljudima u cilju radne eksploatacije. Istraživanje je pokazalo da mediji u Srbiji izveštavaju i u kontekstu krize u Ukrajini (3%) i to da su žene i deca izbeglice iz Ukrajine sve češće plen trgovaca ljudima nakon bekstva u EU od ratnih strahota u domovini. Nevladine organizacije za zaštitu ljudskih prava upozorili su na ovu opasnost i apelovali na države članice Unije da pojačaju kontrolu (Kurir.rs). U 17 objava našle su se i ispovesti onih koji su bili žrtve trgovine ljudima. Jedna od njih je i Nevena Mitić, žrtva trgovine ljudima, koja je odvedena u Holandiju 1995. godine gde je dve godine bila primorana na prostituciju. Nakon što ju je jedna osoba odvela, druga ju je pronašla i spasila. Njen život je bio stavljen na ispit, gde je mladost bila oduzeta, a kroz iskustvo je postala jača i odlučila da podeli svoju priču kako bi ohrabrila druge žene.

Tematski fokusi (Top 10) Broj objava %
1 Hapšenja i suđenja zbog trgovine ljudima 471 49,95%
2 Borba protiv trgovine ljudima 48 5,09%
3 Navodi o trgovini organima na KiM 44 4,67%
4 Uopšteno o fenomenu 43 4,56%
5 Konferencije, radionice i kampanje
za borbu protiv trgovine ljudima
28 2,97%
6 Ukrajinska kriza 24 2,55%
7 Slučaj radnika iz „Linglonga“ 24 2,55%
8 Statistike o žrtvama trgovine ljudima 19 2,01%
9 Ispovesti žrtava trgovine ljudima 17 1,80%
10 Izveštaj Stejt departmenta o trgovini ljudima za 2022. 12 1,27%
Total 730

Tema trgovina ljudima bila je glavna u 563 objave (59,70%), dok je značaj ove teme u 380 tekstova bio sporedan (40,30%).

Jedna od metrika u analizi bili su i naslovi tekstova, koji igraju ključnu ulogu u profesionalnom i objektivnom novinarstvu jer često predstavljaju prvi kontakt sa čitaocima, posebno u online okruženju gde mnogi često ne čitaju celokupan sadržaj. Analiza je pokazala da je, nažalost, više od polovina naslova bila senzacionalistička. Ovakav način izveštavanja često umanjuje ozbiljnost situacije i može dovesti do stigmatizacije i dalje traumatizacije žrtava. Takođe, on može sprečiti žrtve da potraže pomoć i podršku jer se osećaju sramotno i neshvaćeno. Osim toga, takav pristup može stvoriti nerealne predstave o trgovini ljudima u javnosti, što otežava borbu protiv ovog problema na efikasan i saosećajan način. U broju senzacionalističkih naslova prednjači Kurir.rs i to naslovima kao što su: DEVOJKU (20) IZ ALEKSINCA PODVODILI MUŠKARCIMA ZA NOVAC, PA JE PRODALI; Pozvali je da im čuva decu pa je NATERALI NA PROSTITUCIJU; GDE ĆE IM DUŠA! Trudna madam i njen dečko maltretirali SIROČE i terali je da se prostituiše da bi im vratila izmišljeni dug; KONOBAR MI NUDIO S*KS S PROSTITUTKAMA U KAFANI: Svedok na suđenju ispričao kako je makro Ljubiša Vasić podvodio devojke; NIŠLIJKU PRODALI ZA 1.000 DINARA, ŽIVELI U KOMBIJU: Određen pritvor trgovcima ljudima iz Aleksinca; TATA MI JE TO RADIO! Posle JEZIVOG svedočenja devojčice iz Subotice, otac MONSTRUM dobio 12 godina zatvora; UZNEMIRUJUĆE! KLANJE I UBIJANJE SRBA! ORGANI VAĐENI ZA PRODAJU: Vulin: Film “Žuta kuća” je dug Srbije prema žrtvama!

Senzacionalističke naslove beležimo i u drugim medijima, kao što su: DIGAO MU SE DOK SU GA PRIVODILI! (Alo!), DROGIRAO SIROMAŠNE ŽENE I TERAO IH NA PROSTITUCIJU! (Alo!), ZLOSTAVLJALI DEVOJKU, PA JE PRODALI ZA 200 EVRA RADI BRAKA (Blic), UDARI JE U LICE, ZGRABI ZA VRAT” Ko je kontroverzni influenser Endru Tejt i zašto je živeo u NAŠEM KOMŠILUKU: Osumnjičen je za silovanje i trgovinu ljudima (Blic.rs), TERALI INVALIDA DA PROSI Morao da donosi 100 evra dnevno, mučili ga 7 godina: Podignuta optužnica protiv PORODICE IZ PAKLA, presudu čekaju na slobodi (Blic.rs), Dadilju terali na prostituciju, PA JE PRODALI U BELO ROBLJE (Informer), RUSKINJA PRODALA BEBU DA BI ZARADILA ZA PLASTIČNU OPERACIJU! Par kupio dete staro 5 dana, ali jedno ih je otkrilo! (Mondo.rs), Podignuta optužnica protiv petorke: Devojku terali na prostituciju, silovali je metlom (Nova.rs), Ćerku prodao za 10.000 evra (Objektiv), 11 MANIJAKA SILOVALO DEVOJČICU (Srpski telegraf), Bili smo u kupleraju “Prve frizure Srbije: Cene devojaka zavise od jedne stvari, a ulazi se tajnim hodnikom (Telegraf.rs), Uzimali za noć i do 5.000 evra (Večernje novosti) i Prodao ćerku za 2.000 evra (Večernje novosti).

Od svih medija dnevni list Politika prednjači u broju informativnih naslova, kao što su: Znanjem i edukacijom protiv trgovine ljudima; Besplatne obuke žena iz ranjivih grupa; Brat Seke Sablić robija u Srbiji; Deci koja žive i zarađuju na ulici neophodna podrška; Ocu 12 godina zatvora za obljubu maloletne ćerke; Radna eksploatacija kao novi oblik ropstva; Radnici iz Vijetnama bez odgovarajuće zaštite i Trgovina ljudima – od seksualne eksploatacije do prodaje organa.

Pored senzacionalističkih naslova, izveštavanje o trgovini ljudima često prate i uznemiravajuće slike ili ilustracije. Ovakav vizuelni sadržaj može značajno uticati na kvalitet i percepciju izveštavanja jer može pojačati emocionalni utisak članaka, ali istovremeno riskira sekundarnu viktimizaciju žrtava i može biti okidač za traumatske reakcije kod čitalaca/gledalaca.

Istraživanje je pokazalo da 166 objava informiše svoje čitaoce/gledaoce o borbi protiv trgovini ljudima i ima edukativan sadržaj. U tome prednjači dnevni list Politika, koji se npr. bavio pravnim okvirom za legalizaciju prostitucije i kako bi to uticalo na borbu protiv trgovine ljudima. Na drugom mestu je Kurir.rs koji je istraživao kako se postaje žrtva trgovine ljudima, upozorenjima kako da se prepoznaju sajtovi na kojima su potencijalni predatori. Doprinos ovoj temi, kao i edukaciji javnosti dali su naravno i predstavnici nevladinih organizacija koje se bave borbom protiv trgovine ljudima kao što su ASTRA i Atina. Ostalih 777 objava najčešće su bile u formi faktografskih oblika novinarskih izveštavanja i pisali su o dnevno aktuelnim dešavanjima.

Zaključak

Istraživanje medijskog pokrivanja teme trgovine ljudima u 2022. godini ukazuje na intenzivno bavljenje ovim problemom u srpskim medijima. Sa ukupno 943 objave, dominirali su internet portali, dok su štampani mediji i televizija takođe dali značajan doprinos.

Analiza je pokazala da su mediji najčešće izveštavali o hapšenjima i suđenjima povezanim sa trgovinom ljudima, s posebnim naglaskom na seksualnu eksploataciju, koja čini gotovo 40% ukupnih objava. Pored toga, analiza pokazuje da su mediji takođe posvetili pažnju i edukativnim sadržajima o borbi protiv trgovine ljudima, sa značajnim brojem objava koje pokrivaju konferencije, radionice, kampanje i obuke, naglašavajući važnost prevencije i podizanja svesti o ovom fenomenu.

Međutim, uprkos ovim naporima, uočeno je da je značajan broj naslova imao senzacionalistički pristup, što može uticati na percepciju javnosti i stavove prema žrtvama trgovine ljudima. Senzacionalizam u naslovima i uznemiravajuće slike mogu dovesti do sekundarne viktimizacije žrtava i stigmatizacije, što predstavlja izazov za odgovorno novinarstvo. Takođe, primećen je i problem pogrešne interpretacije situacija s migrantima što dodatno ističe složenost ove teme. Neretko su izveštaji o migrantima bez validnih dokumenata brzopleto interpretirani kao slučajevi trgovine ljudima, bez dubljeg istraživanja ili potvrde. Ovaj aspekt pokazuje značajnu potrebu za profesionalnim i detaljnim novinarstvom koje razlikuje trgovinu ljudima od nelegalne migracije.

Mediji igraju dvostruku ulogu u izveštavanju o trgovini ljudima. S jedne strane, oni imaju moć da edukuju i podižu svest o ovoj složenoj temi. S druge strane, prisustvo senzacionalističkih naslova i uznemirujućih vizuelnih materijala ukazuje na potrebu za većom odgovornošću i etičkim standardima u novinarstvu. U medijskom izveštavanju o trgovini ljudima, novinari bi trebalo da obrate posebnu pažnju na način izveštavanja, izbegavajući senzacionalističke naslove i poštujući privatnost i dostojanstvo žrtava. Važno je povećati fokus na edukativnom sadržaju kako bi se podigla svest o problemu i njegovim rešenjima, uz temeljno istraživanje i dokumentovanje svakog slučaja. Balansirano izveštavanje koje humanizuje žrtve, saradnja sa stručnjacima, odbacivanje stereotipa, kao i transparentnost izvora, ključni su za osiguravanje objektivnog izveštavanja o ovoj kompleksnoj temi. Ovim pristupom, mediji ne samo da doprinose pravednijem i tačnijem izveštavanju, već i aktivno učestvuju u stvaranju društva koje je obavešteno i koje efikasno reaguje na izazove trgovine ljudima.

Autorka istraživanja: 

Ivana Milošević, Head of Media Analysis & Research, Kliping

Istraživači na projektu: 

Filip Barić, Senior Media Analyst

Tanja Jerinić, Media Analyst, Kliping

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